The Plantation in the manors of Cloghogall and Dunnalong, 1610-70
The plantation in the barony of Strabane was very much a family affair with the chief undertaker being James Hamilton, first earl of Abercorn, while two of his brothers, Sir Claud of Shawfield and Sir George of Greenlaw, also received grants of land in the barony. The earl’s brother-in-law, Sir Thomas Boyd, was also a grantee, while a further grantee, George Hamilton of Binning, was probably related to Abercorn. Born in 1575, the earl was the eldest son of Lord Claud Hamilton of Paisley, a prominent Scottish nobleman who had been a strong supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots. By the age of twenty-three, he had become a privy councillor and a gentleman of the bedchamber. He was created earl in 1603. It would appear that Abercorn was not a voluntary planter; rather he had to be ‘induced’ by the king to take up the challenge.
The lands in Strabane barony allotted to the earl were the great proportion of Dunnalong, nominally 2000 acres and the small proportion of Strabane which was reckoned to be 1000 acres. Although calculated by the plantation surveyors as being 2000 acres, Dunnalong proportion was in reality of more than 10,000 acres. Interestingly, while Dunnalong was estimated at the time as being the largest in the barony, its actual acreage made it smaller than some of those proportions believed to have been of only 1000 acres. Sir George Hamilton was granted a 1500 acre proportion known as Cloghogall or Largie which basically comprised all the secular lands in the parish of Leckpatrick. It lay between Abercorn’s lands of Dunnalong and Strabane.
The proportion of Dunnalong, 1610-22
Unfortunately, the original patent for the proportion of Dunnalong, made ca1610, has not survived. However, a regrant of the proportion was made in May 1622. The conditions of this patent make fascinating reading and cover such things from judicial matters to the way the tenants’ houses were to be built. They were as follows:
Power to create tenures; to empark 400a for demesne lands; to hold courts leet and baron, to appoint stewards; to have jurisdiction in all actions for debt under 40s sterling ... to have free warren and park; to enjoy all waifs and strays, and all tithes great and small, with all wrecks of the sea. To hold ... 1 fair at Donalonge on 1 August, and the day after, for ever, with courts of pie powder and the usual tolls and customs; rent 1l 10s Engl.; power to appoint a clerk of the market. To have a ferry ... on the river Foyle, to pass from Donalong to the other side of said river, and to be kept in such places as they are now usually holden and to receive the usual fees of passage; to have a power of building 2 tan-houses ... in the manor of Donalonge. To keep a competent number for the defence and safe-guard and themselves and tenants against rebels and all other enemies; with power to alien one-half of the lands in fee simple or fee tail, or for any estate of frank tenement, to any persons not mere Irish; the tenants or farmers to build their houses in town-reeds and not dispersedly.
In addition to the above conditions further obligations were imposed on Abercorn with regard to the number of tenants on his manor while there were also regulations governing the buildings on the estate. The manor of Dunnalong, being of 2000 acres, required to be planted with 48 adult males who were to come from at least 20 families. It was also expected of Abercorn that he should have the responsibility for building the tenants’ houses which were to be located near the fortification on his estate. The fortification on the Dunnalong proportion was to be composed of a ‘stone house with a strong court or bawn’ surrounding it and this was to be completed within two years of the original grant.
The principal sources of information on the progress of the plantation in Ulster in its formative years are the four surveys carried out between 1611 and 1622. Despite being allocated to the most energetic and ambitious undertaker in the barony, Dunnalong would seem to have been of only secondary importance to the earl who concentrated his efforts at Strabane. The surveys carried out by Sir George Carew in 1611 and Sir Josias Bodley in 1613 make no specific mention of Dunnalong.
The names of some early settlers in the manor of Dunnalong have survived in a list of men who were granted denizenship in 1617 in order that ‘they be free from the yoke of Scotch or Irish servitude and enjoy the rights and privileges of English subjects’ which among other things meant that they could legally pass on property to an heir. These men were: John Doninge rufus, Gabriel Simpson, David Lynn, John Lynn, Robert Miller and Robert Granger. The first name on this list could be the same as the John Dunning who bought two cows for £2 6s. 0d. from Sir Claude Hamilton’s lands at Leat in his Killeny proportion in April 1614.
In late 1618, Captain Nicholas Pynnar undertook a much more detailed investigation and, for the first time, specific information was gathered for the proportion of Dunnalong. To begin with, Pynnar noted that at Dunnalong there was ‘neither Castle nor Bawne,’ in spite of the fact that this was an important condition to be fulfilled by the grantee of a 2000 acre proportion. The fact that the earl resided in his castle at Strabane probably accounted for the fact that there was no castle at Dunnalong; on his part, the expense involved in the construction of a further fortification was unnecessary. However, Pynnar did note that at Dunnalong, the tenants had built three or four houses of lime and stone. As for the nationality of the tenantry, Pynnar unequivocally stated that they were British. The total number of tenant families on the estate was twenty, a figure that fitted exactly the conditions of the plantation. Six of these were freeholders and the rest were leaseholders. These tenants, together with their undertenants, brought the total number of adult males capable of bearing arms on the proportion to 106.
The 1622 plantation survey
In 1622 the most detailed of the four plantation surveys was undertaken. For the manor of Dunnalong we have both the official report presented by the commissioners appointed to investigate the progress of the plantation and a certificate presented by William Lynne, agent to the Abercorns, which contains additional information on the manor. The first thing noted in the official report in Dunnalong was the appearance of a ‘good Castle of stone & lyme, 3 stories high ....... and about a Bawne 54 foot long, 42 foot broad and 6 foot high, with two open Flanckers’. This castle was obviously begun some time after Pynnar’s survey and the fact that it was noted as being uninhabited as well as there being no gate to the bawn would seem to indicate that it had still not been completed. The ruins of this castle can still be seen in the modern townland of Mountcastle.
Turning to the tenantry, the commissioners of the 1622 survey noted that in Dunnalong there were five freeholders - one less than in the previous survey. It was noted that three of the freeholders, namely William Lynn(e), Hugh Hamilton and James Hamilton, had built for themselves three good stone houses. These must have been the same houses noted by Pynnar in his survey. Those tenants whose lands were described as being ‘unsetled’, which presumably meant that they were leaseholders, consisted of twenty-four families. As in the previous survey the nationality of the tenants was stated as being British.
While the official report can be used to gauge reasonably well the progress of the plantation in the proportion of Dunnalong, a wealth of additional information is contained in the certificate presented by Lynne to the commissioners. This certificate firstly listed the names of the freeholders and the acreages they held, followed by a list of the names of the leaseholders and, finally, a description of the buildings found in the proportion. The five freeholders were John Hamilton, Hugh Hamilton of Moyagh, Hugh Hamilton of Lisdivin, James Hamilton of Dullerton and William Lynne of Londonderry. Biographical sketches of each of these men are given below.
Having listed the freeholders on the Dunnalong proportion, Lynne went on to record the names of the leaseholders. These are twenty-four in number and include James Hamilton who was probably the same man as he of the freehold, as well as Hugh Hamilton who may possibly be the freeholder of Lisdivin. There was also a Margarette Hamilton, described as being a widow, who must have been the former wife of the Reverend Patrick Hamilton. Of the six men granted freedom from Scottish servitude in 1617, only three are listed as freeholders, namely Robert Miller, John Lynne and Robert Granger. Within the walls of the ancient burial ground at Grange a sandstone slab, featuring a heraldic shield bearing three stags’ heads, commemorates a Robert Granger who died in 1630. This probably marks the last resting place of the leaseholder noted above. In a summonister’s roll of 20 September 1626 a Robert Granger who lived at Cloghboy is mentioned. Another leaseholder in Dunnalong in 1622 was John Kennedy, a merchant and burgess in Strabane.
The final part of Lynne’s certificate was given over to description of the buildings on the proportion. Of these, the castle and stone houses built by Lynne and the two Hamiltons have already been mentioned. In addition to this Lynne noted that most of the leaseholders had built houses of stone, though presumably not as elaborate as those of the freeholders, while the rest had built houses of cuples, a term which seems to mean that the houses had inclined rafters. Furthermore, the proportion now had a stone water mill where the tenants could grind their corn. A ‘good quay built this year’ was also recorded in the certificate, while a ferry with ‘sufficient boates for men and horse’ was mentioned as well. The indication is quite clear that the ancient river crossing over the Foyle between Dunnalong and Carrigans in Donegal continued in importance.
While Pynnar’s survey may have been the first real opportunity to gauge the progress of the plantation in Dunnalong, the information that has survived from the 1622 survey makes it possible to make a detailed analysis of the proportion at the time. In terms of infrastructure, the proportion had improved considerably since 1619 particularly with the construction of a fortified dwelling. The Abercorns, it would seem, were investing more of their time and money in the proportion. At the same time, it would appear that the numbers of settlers on the proportion had not improved since the last survey. Unlike Pynnar, the commissioners of the 1622 survey did not give a total number of adult males on the proportion and so this figure can only be guessed at. Although the certificate presented by Lynne did not state the precise number of undertenants and cottagers on the Dunnalong proportion, merely stating that there were a ‘greate number,’ the draft report noted that there were twenty-four. Even with the supposition that there were two men to a family, when all the variables are taken into account it would appear that there was a slight drop in the settler population in Dunnalong between 1619 and 1622. This was not something peculiar to the Dunnalong proportion but reflected the situation in the whole of Strabane barony where there had been little progress in the period between the two surveys.
The Manor of Cloghogall, 1610-22
Sir George Hamilton of Greenlaw, like his brother, the earl of Abercorn, proved to be an energetic planter. By the time of Carew’s survey in 1611 he was resident with his wife and family on his proportion of Cloghogall and had built a timber house 62 feet long and 30 feet wide. He had also built a bawn and a number of timber houses for some families of Scots he had brought over with him. Between them the settlers in Cloghogall had eighty cows and sixteen garrons (horses). Two years later Bodley found that Sir George Hamilton ‘with his lady, his family, and stock of cattle, is resident upon his proportion in a convenient house which for the time he hath built, having also caused to be set up very near three score Irish houses or cabins upon his said land for the present relief of his tenants and followers who are estated according to the conditions, have good store of cattle and are well furnished with arms, besides his own competent provision. His lime is ready for the kiln and his other materials drawing together for the structures required by the articles of plantation.’ By this time Sir George had taken over the proportion of Derrywoon in Strabane barony from his namesake, George Hamilton of Binning. Several men from the manor of Cloghogall received denizenship in 1616-7. They were William Gamble, Gilbert McCreaghan, Patrick McCeaghan, Archibald McGraghan, John Montgomery, all of whom lived at Ballymagorry, and Hugh Hamilton of Loughneas.
The rapid progress of the plantation in Cloghogall could not be sustained and when Pynnar carried out his investigations in 1618-9 he found that there was ‘no more done upon the bawne and House than was done when Sir Josias Modely [Bodley] did last survey it’. The village which had comprised sixty houses in 1613 had declined to thirty ‘Irish coupled Houses’. It was situated in ‘road and in a convenient place’. Twelve of the inhabitants of the village were regarded as ‘townsmen’ and each of them possessed a ‘House and Garden Plott, with some small quantities of land to feed their Cows’. With regard to the way in which Sir George Hamilton had divided up his proportion among his tenants, there were four freeholders or fee-farmers. One of these held 102 acres and the other three sixty acres each. There were ten tenants who held leases for lives. One of them held 120 acres and the rest possessed sixty acres each. In total Pynnar reckoned that there were fifty armed men on this estate.
As with the proportion of Dunnalong the most detailed description of Cloghogall in the early years of the Plantation comes in the 1622 survey. Looking at the original report first we read that in Cloghogall there was a ‘good Bawne of lyme and stone, 99 foot long, 57 foot broad and [about] 8 foot high, with 4 Flanckers upon two whereof are built two little store houses of stone and lyme, covered with slate, wherein Sir George and his Lady with their Familie doe usuallie inhabit.’ However, at the time of the survey Sir George and his family were in Scotland and his bawn was being looked after by his servants. The village adjoining the bawn was now of only twenty houses. There were three freeholders in Cloghogall in 1622 who held their lands as follows: one with 120 acres, one with 60 acres and the other with 20 acres. The number of other British tenants on the estate was seventeen.
Robert Algeo, of whom more will be said later, wrote the certificate presented to the commissioners of the 1622 survey on the proportion of Cloghogall. According to Algeo’s certificate the three freeholders in the proportion were Hugh Hamilton of two townlands, James Hamilton of one townland, and Alexander Christie of ‘a parcel of land’. Algeo himself appeared among the leaseholders in Cloghogall. As well as the bawn built by Sir George, Algeo noted a water mill built of stone and a walking mill. A walking or tuck mill was used for fulling woollen cloth. The presence of one in the proportion of Cloghogall represents an interesting example of early industrial diversification in rural west Ulster. It also indicates that there were significant numbers of sheep in the locality. Finally, Algeo noted good stone houses built by William Gembill, John Browne and Algeo himself.
Freeholders in Cloghogall and Dunnalong in 1622
For most of the freeholders, brief biographical sketches may be given in order that an insight might be gained into the type of men who became planters in Ulster in the early seventeenth century. In the manor of Dunnalong the first named freeholder was John Hamilton, described by Lynne as being a ‘gent’ - short for gentleman - which basically meant that he was of sufficient means to employ others to work his lands for him. Hamilton was also described as being the son of ‘Patrick Hamilton clerk deceased,’ the word clerk used here to mean a minister of religion. Both of these men received grants of denizenship in July 1616. and could enjoy the ‘rights and privileges of English subjects.’ Their freehold of seven townlands was unusually large. Although Lynne’s certificate makes it clear that Patrick Hamilton had died before the 1622 survey, probate was taken out on a will, belonging to a Reverend Patrick Hamilton of Donagheady, in 1635. In this will the deceased left his quarter of land - four townlands - and his house at Cavancreagh to his son John, who along with another son, Walter, was listed as executor. It was also stated in this will that in the year 1629, the Reverend Patrick Hamilton was entitled to the tithes of the parishes of Leckpatrick and Camus, even though no record has survived of any man by this name having served a parish in the barony of Strabane in the seventeenth century. There is no simple explanation for these anomalies.
The second freeholder noted in the proportion of Dunnalong was Hugh Hamilton ‘gent’ who was the son of James Hamilton of Blantyre. In July 1602, this man was charged with abducting a woman, Janet Armour, though no other details are available concerning this strange incident. Although holding land in Scotland, Hugh Hamilton also showed an interest in investing his money in the barony of Strabane in the early stages of the plantation. His freehold was the townland of Moyagh, described by Lynne as being ‘one towne and more’ because of its size. The date of the deed is 20 August 1612 making it the earliest surviving for the proportion. For this freehold Hamilton paid the earl £8 in rent and also one bullock and two sheep. In July 1616 Hugh Hamilton of Moyagh acquired a grant of denization. In 1622, he had still not completed the stone house in which he was to dwell, although it was almost finished. He married Isobell, daughter of James Hamilton of Newton in Scotland and had a son, John, and a daughter, Margaret. His death took place sometime before the Civil Survey of 1654.
The third freeholder in Dunnalong was Hugh Hamilton of Lisdovin - present-day Lisdivin - and he was a man of some substance. This Hugh Hamilton was the son of John Hamilton of Priestfield in Blantyre and in 1603 he was apprenticed in Edinburgh to a William Nisbett. In the early stages of the plantation, he, together with his brother, William, moved to Strabane barony where he combined his mercantile dealings with the acquisition of freehold land. In a deed dated 1 January 1615, he gained the freehold of Lisdivin in Dunnalong proportion. The details of this have already been noted and would seem to indicate that Hamilton’s mercantile activities involved the importation of luxury foodstuffs; it is remarkable to think that there were sufficient people in Strabane barony in the early seventeenth century to justify such a trade. An early port book of the city of Derry records that Hugh Hamilton imported from Scotland in 1614 goods to the value of £34. In July 1616, as Hugh Hamilton of ‘Loughneneas,’ - a freehold he had acquired from Sir George Hamilton in the neighbouring proportion of Cloghogall - he received a grant of denization. By 1622, he had built a stone house at Lisdivin. As well as this house, Hamilton also owned four houses in the town of Strabane. He acquired an interest in the abbeylands of Grange, which together with his merchant business and his other properties must have him one of the richest men in the barony. Hamilton also engaged in the political life of Strabane, being listed as one of its first burgesses in 1612 and serving as provost in 1624-5.
The fourth freeholder listed by Lynne was James Hamilton, another ‘gent’, who was recorded as having three townlands in his freehold. However, he must have disposed of one of these before his death because his will, dated 8 December 1636, mentions only Dullerton and Altrest. He had three sons by his wife, Euphemia: James, John, and Patrick who would seem to have been minors at the time of his death. The original deed for his freehold has not survived but he was living at Dullerton from at least 1617 when his name begins to appear in the summonister’s rolls. He was possibly the freeholder of the same name in the manor of Cloghogall, but we have no idea where his freehold was.
The final freeholder on the Dunnalong proportion was William Lynne who, as has already been noted, was agent to the Abercorns and who presented the certificate to the commissioners of the 1622 survey. This man was a prominent figure in north west Ulster in the early 1600s and he certainly did not owe his initial presence in the Foyle valley to the earl of Abercorn. However, it would appear that he was involved in the affairs of Strabane from an early stage, being present at an inquisition held in the town in 1611. He styled himself ‘of Londonderry’ in the certificate for Dunnalong in 1622 and it is clear from the records that he had a strong vested interest in that city.
He was one of the ‘old inhabitants’ of the settlement, living there before the Londoners took over and, in 1610, he was paid £40 in compensation for a ‘house with a backside and divers tenements.’ However, his association with the city continued and in 1613 he was appointed one of its first two sheriffs. He was granted Cloghogle on 27 October 1614. The freehold of Cloghogle was reckoned to have been about 60 acres and for this Lynne was required to pay £6 rent at the feasts of Philip and James and All Saints by even and equal portions. In addition to this he was to provide a year-old bullock on the feast of Philip and James and two fat and unshorn sheep on every November 1. He and his undertenants were to grind their corn at the earl’s mill. He was to have in readiness in his house one musket and two lances and he was to keep two men armed with lances and musket. Finally, Lynne was required to build within four years a ‘good and sufficient house of stone and lime or stone and clay with windowes and chimneyes after the form of Scottishe buildings’.
In July 1616 he was awarded a grant of denizenship and by this time he would appear to have come into the service of the earl of Abercorn, thus becoming one of the most powerful men in the barony of Strabane. The successful development of the town of Strabane at this time can partly be attributed to the energy he displayed as agent. His landed interests extended much further than his freehold in the manor of Dunnalong since Pynnar’s survey noted that Lynne owned 108 acres known as Carrowcreagh and 240 acres called Laugaurack in Co. Donegal, though he had built nothing on these. His will was proved in 1625.
Of the three freeholders in the manor of Cloghogall, one has been identified with Hugh Hamilton who also held the freehold of Lisdivin in the manor of Dunnalong, while another has been tentatively identified with James Hamilton of Dullerton in the latter manor. With regard to the third freeholder, Alexander Christie, we have no additional information.
The Abercorns and the manor of Dunnalong
The first earl of Abercorn died in 1618, and although he had not taken a great deal of interest in his Dunnalong proportion, his achievements at Strabane were impressive and he was without doubt the mainstay of the plantation in Strabane barony in its formative years. His successor to the earldom was his eldest son, James, who was not provided with any lands in the barony of Strabane, but succeeded to his grandfather’s estates in Scotland in 1621. The first earl’s lands around Strabane were divided between two of his sons, with his fourth son George receiving the manor of Dunnalong. In 1634, by royal decree, George Hamilton was granted formal possession of the manor of Dunnalong. Sir George, as he had become known by this time, was only a boy when his father died and, as a consequence of being placed under the guardianship of his uncle Sir George Hamilton of Greenlaw, was brought up a Roman Catholic. In 1627, by royal instruction, he was given command of a company of foot left vacant by the death of Sir Roger Hope and, in 1629, he married Mary Butler, third daughter of Viscount Thurles and sister of the first duke of Ormond.
The native Irish and the Plantation in Dunnalong and Cloghogall
According to the official report of the 1622 survey there were 120 native Irish families in total on the three Abercorn proportions of Dunnalong, Shean and Strabane. It is not made specifically clear, however, how many of these were on the manor of Dunnalong alone. On Sir George Hamilton of Greenlaw’s two proportions of Cloghogall and Derrywoon there were 88 Irish families, though again it is not made clear how many of these lived in Cloghogall. We have very little information on the native Irish in the two proportions in the early seventeenth century. What we do know can be summarised below.
A summonister’s roll of 1617 lists Patrick groome O’Devin and Morris oge McNeme (McNamee?) as living in the townland of Castlemellan. A Cormick O’Devin was living at Dullerton in 1621 and he would seem to have been an undertenant of the freeholder James Hamilton. Another probable undertenant of James Hamilton was Hugh O’Devin of Dullerton who was convicted of treason at the Tyrone assizes on 25 February 1628, though it is not known what this was for or whether the sentence was carried out. An inquisition held in Co. Tyrone in September 1630 noted several townlands in the proportion of Cloghogall which were ‘most fitt to be sett to the Irishe and the setting of same to Irishe is not disadvantageous to the British freeholders or leaseholders’. The three townlands were Balliola (Ballylaw), Cavan-ychoal (?) and Foyfin (Fyfin). The latter two townlands probably represent the greater part of Glenmornan.
The 1641 rebellion and its aftermath
On 23 October 1641 a rebellion broke out in Ulster which was to have far reaching consequences for the entire island and, indeed, much further afield. In west Ulster forces under the command of Sir Phelim O’Neill seized some places of importance including Dungannon and Castlecaulfield. On 14 December 1641 O’Neill marched with 1500 men on Strabane and captured it without resistance. According to a deposition by Michael Harrison of Lisnagarvey, given in 1652, the capture of Strabane was accompanied by ‘burnings, spoilings ..... committed on the British inhabitants of those quarters.’ It was probably not until this time that the mass of the settlers fled from their farms, many of them taking refuge within the walls of Derry. Mountcastle, the home of Sir George Hamilton of Dunnalong, was destroyed at this time. It is known that the rector of Donagheady, Edward Stanhope, died of a fever brought on by maltreatment at the hands of the rebels in the winter of 1641-2. Resistance to the rebels was organised by the Stewart brothers, Sir William of Newtownstewart and Sir Robert, who recruited an army from among the settlers known as the Laganeers.
Sir George Hamilton of Dunnalong was closely involved with the royalist cause in this period. However, because of his religion many people were suspicious of him and on 1 January 1642 he was arrested by the mayor of Chester while on his way to Ireland. The following month he lost his command on account of his catholicism. This proved to be only a temporary setback for he was soon restored to favour and served in a number of posts including Receiver-General in Ireland from 1646-52. In 1649 he was made a captain of horse, colonel of foot, and governor of Nenagh castle, Co. Tipperary. He demonstrated his loyalty to the royalist cause by following Prince Charles into exile and lived for a time in Paris. His lands were confiscated by the victorious Cromwellians but restored to him in 1660. Sir George Hamilton of Greenlaw died about 1654 and his son James died without heir in 1658. In 1667 Sir George Hamilton of Dunnalong was granted the manor of Cloghogall under the Acts of Settlement and Explanation. No longer living in Dunnalong, following the destruction of Mountcastle in 1641, Sir George’s direct involvement in the day to day affairs of the two manors must have been fairly limited. Until his death in 1679 he was to spend most of his time in Co. Tipperary.
The Civil Survey and the manor of Dunnalong.
In the 1650s the government commissioned an investigation known as the Civil Survey in order to find out how much land there was in Ireland and who owned it. The compilers of the Civil Survey estimated the acreage of each townland and noted how much of it was profitable and non-profitable. They also recorded the names of the tenants of the freeholds in each manor. The first freehold in the manor of Dunnalong noted by the compilers of the survey was held by Michael Marshall, a Scottish Protestant, who claimed that he possessed a deed from Sir George Hamilton for a ‘fee farme of a tenement house garden and malltbarne with a parcell of grounde adjacent, estimate three acres, with grass for three Cowse’ in the townland of Menagh Hill. The original deed for this townland has not survived but it must have been made in the mid to late 1630s. The mention of a ‘malltbarne’ would seem to imply that Marshall was involved in brewing and this is an interesting continuation of an activity begun by Docwra in 1600 at Dunnalong fort - which would then have been part of the townland of Menagh Hill.
The freehold of Cloghogle was in the 1650s in the possession of William Lynn, nephew to William Lynn, the original grantee and agent to the first earl of Abercorn. In 1667, this man was expelled from the established church on account of his presbyterian beliefs. He died in 1672. The freehold of Lisdivin was in the possession of Hugh Hamilton son to the original grantee of the same name. However, this freehold had not passed directly to Hugh the younger. His elder brother, George, had been the original heir but he had died in 1652. George’s son, another Hugh, had died in 1642. Hugh Hamilton the younger was also listed as being the proprietor of the abbeylands of Grange although they were at that time in the possession of James Galbraith, later to be of Rathmoran, Co. Fermanagh, who had married Elizabeth, widow of George Hamilton. It should also be noted here that a nephew of the original Hugh Hamilton of Lisdivin, confusingly another Hugh Hamilton, had acquired a grant of the abbeylands of Drummeny - ‘otherwise half of Grange’ - on 23 March 1638.
John Hamilton held the freehold of Moyagh in the 1650s having inherited it from his father Hugh, the original grantee. The Civil Survey described him as being a besieger of Derry. This must have been the siege that took place in 1649 when an army of Presbyterians, angry at the execution of Charles I, encamped around the city for a time before dispersing. John Goodlett was in possession of the freehold of Dullerton, which also included Altrest. He had married Euphemia, the widow of James Hamilton, the original grantee. In 1662, Goodlett was still living with his wife at Dullerton, though he is not listed in the Hearth Money Roll of 1666, yet curiously reappears in the 1669 roll living in Lisdivin. An Adventurers Soldier’s certificate from 1667 mentions James Hamilton and his freehold rent of Dullerton. Presumably some time after 1662 Euphemia had died and Goodlett had been forced to leave Dullerton by James Hamilton, son of the original grantee, who had now come of age.
The Civil Survey also provides some incidental information on a number of buildings and other features in the manor. Mention is made of the corn mill which in 1640 yielded Sir George Hamilton £30 in rent. A survey of the manor of Dunnalong compiled about 1640 listed a mill in the townland of Altnegalloglagh. This was the old name for what is now Sandville and Milltown. The name Milltown has been in use since at least the beginning of the eighteenth century and so it can be assumed, with a fair degree of confidence, that the mill referred to in the Civil Survey was located in this townland. The Civil Survey also mentions an old wooden bridge over the Burndennett river close to two ringforts. The first edition of the Ordnance Survey map for the area, made c.1834, marks ‘Ruins of Old Bridge’ a few hundred yards north of the farmyard now known as Barley Hill in the townland of Ballydonaghy. Slightly closer to the present Burndennett bridge a ringfort is marked. Obvious traces of either are no longer visible.
The Civil Survey and the parish of Leckpatrick
According to the introduction to Leckpatrick in the Civil Survey, the parish contained ‘nothing remarkable’. The proprietor of the temporal lands in the parish was James Hamilton, the minor son of Sir George Hamilton of Greenlaw. The first freehold noted in the parish was Balliburny, otherwise Hollyhill, which was in the possession of David Marghee or Macghee. This man was described as a ‘Scottish Papist’ and he had been granted the freehold by Sir George Hamilton of Greenlaw. Macghee was a very important figure in Strabane barony in the seventeenth century. He was possibly the son of John Macghee who died in 1617 and whose gravestone survives in Old Leckpatrick graveyard. This gravestone is one of the oldest surviving gravestones in the whole of Ulster.
In 1628 David Macghee was the seneschal of the manor of Strabane. He served as the agent to the Hamiltons in Strabane barony from the mid 1620s to his death in 1678. In 1654 we find him making a preliminary grant to William Nasmith of Ballymagorry on behalf of Lady Mary Hamilton, widow of Sir George Hamilton of Greenlaw. When the proprietors of the manors of Cloghogall and Dunnalong became absentee landlords after 1641 Macghee was probably the most powerful man in the area. It is worth emphasising the fact that he was a Catholic. The Civil Survey also recorded that he possessed a mortgage of the townland of Drumnaboy in the neighbouring parish of Camus-juxta-Mourne. He died ‘on or about’ 9 October 1678 and left a nuncuputative (verbal) will, by which he bequeathed his lands to his wife Catherine and after her death to his son George. In 1683 George Macghee sold Hollyhill to the Reverend John Sinclair.
The second freehold mentioned in the Civil Survey as being in the manor of Cloghogall comprised the two townlands of Tulliard and Conkill in the possession Robert Algeo. Tulliard survives as the modern townland Tullyard, but Conkill is not now recognisable as a placename. From later sources we know that the townland of Woodend formed part of this freehold. According to the Civil Survey this freehold was originally granted to Robert Algeo senior and passed on his death to his son Robert junior who was a ‘Scottish Papist’. We have already noted that Robert Algeo senior was the agent to Sir George Hamilton of Greenlaw and was the man who wrote the certificate which was presented to the Plantation commissioners in 1622. He died on 2 May 1625. His gravestone is built into the Malison Bridge in Artigarvan and features a Crucifixion scene. How it found its way to its present location is a complete mystery, but it may have been in order to protect it from seventeenth century iconoclasts.
The freehold of Loughneas in the manor of Cloghogall was according to the Civil Survey in the possession of Hugh Hamilton the younger of Lisdivin. Although the 1622 survey had recorded freeholds in the manor of Cloghogall possessed by James Hamilton and Alexander Christie, no mention is made of them in the Civil Survey. The Civil Survey also recorded an ‘imperfect’ bawn in the manor of Cloghogall - obviously the remains of the pre-1641 structure - as well as a corn mill and a tuck mill which in 1640 were worth £44 in rent to Sir George. Before concluding this section on the Civil Survey and the manor of Cloghogall, it should also be pointed out that the townland of Coolermoney was mortgaged to John Leslie the elder for £100. Leslie would not appear to have been one of the original settlers in Strabane barony, but he was recorded in the Civil Survey as having acquired the fee farm of Killyclooney from Sir William Hamilton of Manor Eliestoun.
The Down Survey and the manor of Dunnalong
The Civil Survey was the immediate antecedent of the Down Survey carried out under the supervision of Sir William Petty. This was a cartographic survey in which all the forfeited land in Ireland was mapped ‘down’ by exact measurement. Because the manor of Dunnalong had been confiscated from Sir George Hamilton a map was prepared of it. Apart from the townland boundaries and their acreages very little of interest is depicted on the map. Several areas of bog are shown which have since been turned into profitable land while woods feature in the townlands of Magheramason, Coolmaghery, Menagh Hill, and Tullyard. The freeholds of Lisdivin, Dullerton/Altrest, and Moyagh were not mapped and only the outline of Cloghogle is shown. The only man-made structures depicted on the map are two nondescript buildings in the townlands of Fallasloe (Ballyheather) and Ardugboy (Mountcastle). The latter probably represents the ruined plantation castle.
Poll tax and hearth money rolls
A number of name rolls have survived from the 1660s for the parish of Donagheady and by far the most useful of these for the study of the manor of Dunnalong is the poll tax roll of 1661-2. This recorded the names and status, on a townland basis, of every inhabitant of the parish. It is also possible to work out from name analysis the numbers of native Irishmen living in the manor and where they were living.
According to the poll tax roll, there were 164 adults living in Dunnalong manor of which 134 were of British origin and 28 native Irish with two unknowns. These figures have been based on name analysis and also on the assumption that wives were of the same nationality as their husbands. The ratio of British to Irish on the manor was almost five to one. As far as status is concerned, three men - William Lynn, John Goodlett and Archibald Galbraith - were described as gentlemen. Two of these men had wives bringing the total number in this class to five. The number of yeomen and their wives was 77, while there were 82 servants. When status and nationality are taken together it is significant that no native Irishmen were gentlemen and only four were yeomen, all of whom were married. The ratio of British to Irish gentlemen/ yeomen, including their wives, was over nine to one.
The distribution of the native Irish within the manor is also worth commenting on. Although a few of the British tenants on the estate in the western part of the manor employed native Irish servants, most were confined to the eastern fringes. The four native Irish yeomen all lived in this area with two in Tullyard and one each in Carrickatane and Castlemellan. Tullyard and Carrickatane were the only two townlands in the manor with exclusively native Irish inhabitants.
The hearth money rolls for the parish which survive from 1666 and c.1669 also make interesting reading. These record only the heads of households who paid tax on their hearth and so they cannot really be compared with the Poll Book. The roll of 1666 recorded 63 different householders paying hearth tax in the manor of Dunnalong. Of these, 52 were of British origin and eleven were native Irish. By 1669 the total number of householders had risen sharply to 83, a jump of about one third. This rise can be wholly attributed to an increase in the numbers of British settlers who now outnumbered the native Irish by over seven to one. In fact, the number of native Irish householders paying hearth tax had dropped slightly. Most of the new arrivals were of Scottish origin as opposed to English, a continuation of the pattern of pre-1641 in-migration.
According to the 1666 hearth money roll of the parish of Leckpatrick, there were 55 householders paying hearth tax. Of these about 42 were of British origin and the rest native Irish. As with the manor of Dunnalong it is possible to identify the segregation of the two groups. Native Irishmen predominated in those townlands in what is now known as Glenmornan, while British settlers tended to live in the low lying areas along the River Foyle.
This chapter is based to a large extent on unpublished sources in the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, particularly the Abercorn papers (D.623) and the Groves manuscripts (T.808). Pynnar’s survey has been published in G. Hill., An historical account of the plantation in Ulster (Belfast, 1877), while the official report of the 1622 survey for Co. Tyrone has been published in the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, 3rd series 27 (1964). The original of Lynne’s certificate of the 1622 survey is in the Kimbolton manuscripts in the Huntingdon and Peterborough Record Office. Other sources used include Calendar of the Irish patent rolls of James I and R. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey, III (Dublin, 1937). An excellent background study of the plantation in the Strabane area as a whole is R. Hunter (ed.), The plantation in Ulster in Strabane barony, Co. Tyrone (N.U.U., 1982). General reading on the period includes M. Perceval-Maxwell, The Scottish migration to Ulster in the reign of James I (London, 1973) and P. Robinson, The Plantation of Ulster (Dublin, 1984).